Source code for satpy.modifiers.angles

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Copyright (c) 2021-2023 Satpy developers
# This file is part of satpy.
# satpy is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
# terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
# Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
# version.
# satpy is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
# WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
# A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
# satpy.  If not, see <>.
"""Utilties for getting various angles for a dataset.."""
from __future__ import annotations

import datetime as dt
import hashlib
import os
import shutil
import warnings
from functools import update_wrapper
from glob import glob
from typing import Any, Callable, Optional, Union

import dask
import numpy as np
import xarray as xr
from dask import array as da
from pyorbital.astronomy import cos_zen as pyob_cos_zen
from pyorbital.astronomy import get_alt_az
from pyorbital.orbital import get_observer_look
from pyresample.geometry import AreaDefinition, StackedAreaDefinition, SwathDefinition

import satpy
from satpy.utils import PerformanceWarning, get_satpos, ignore_invalid_float_warnings

PRGeometry = Union[SwathDefinition, AreaDefinition, StackedAreaDefinition]

# Arbitrary time used when computing sensor angles that is passed to
# pyorbital's get_observer_look function.
# The difference is on the order of 1e-10 at most as time changes so we force
# it to a single time for easier caching. It is *only* used if caching.
STATIC_EARTH_INERTIAL_DATETIME = dt.datetime(2000, 1, 1, 12, 0, 0)
DEFAULT_UNCACHE_TYPES = (SwathDefinition, xr.DataArray, da.Array)
HASHABLE_GEOMETRIES = (AreaDefinition, StackedAreaDefinition)

[docs] class ZarrCacheHelper: """Helper for caching function results to on-disk zarr arrays. It is recommended to use this class through the :func:`cache_to_zarr_if` decorator rather than using it directly. Currently the cache does not perform any limiting or removal of cache content. That is left up to the user to manage. Caching is based on arguments passed to the decorated function but will only be performed if the arguments are of a certain type (see ``uncacheable_arg_types``). The cache value to use is purely based on the hash value of all of the provided arguments along with the "cache version" (see below). Note that the zarr format requires regular chunking of data. That is, chunks must be all the same size per dimension except for the last chunk. To work around this limitation, this class will determine a good regular chunking based on the existing chunking scheme, rechunk the input arguments, and then rechunk the results before returning them to the user. This rechunking is only done if caching is enabled. Args: func: Function that will be called to generate the value to cache. cache_config_key: Name of the boolean ``satpy.config`` parameter to use to determine if caching should be done. uncacheable_arg_types: Types that if present in the passed arguments should trigger caching to *not* happen. By default this includes ``SwathDefinition``, ``xr.DataArray``, and ``da.Array`` objects. sanitize_args_func: Optional function to call to sanitize provided arguments before they are considered for caching. This can be used to make arguments more "cacheable" by replacing them with similar values that will result in more cache hits. Note that the sanitized arguments are only passed to the underlying function if caching will be performed, otherwise the original arguments are passed. cache_version: Version number used to distinguish one version of a decorated function from future versions. Notes: * Caching only supports dask array values. * This helper allows for an additional ``cache_dir`` parameter to override the use of the ``satpy.config`` ``cache_dir`` parameter. Examples: To use through the :func:`cache_to_zarr_if` decorator:: @cache_to_zarr_if("cache_my_stuff") def generate_my_stuff(area_def: AreaDefinition, some_factor: int) -> da.Array: # Generate return my_dask_arr To use the decorated function:: with satpy.config.set(cache_my_stuff=True): my_stuff = generate_my_stuff(area_def, 5) """ def __init__(self, func: Callable, cache_config_key: str, uncacheable_arg_types=DEFAULT_UNCACHE_TYPES, sanitize_args_func: Optional[Callable] = None, cache_version: int = 1, ): """Hold on to provided arguments for future use.""" self._func = func self._cache_config_key = cache_config_key self._uncacheable_arg_types = uncacheable_arg_types self._sanitize_args_func = sanitize_args_func self._cache_version = cache_version
[docs] def cache_clear(self, cache_dir: Optional[str] = None): """Remove all on-disk files associated with this function. Intended to mimic the :func:`functools.cache` behavior. """ cache_dir = self._get_cache_dir_from_config(cache_dir) zarr_pattern = self._zarr_pattern("*", cache_version="*").format("*") for zarr_dir in glob(os.path.join(cache_dir, zarr_pattern)): shutil.rmtree(zarr_dir, ignore_errors=True)
[docs] def _zarr_pattern(self, arg_hash, cache_version: Union[None, int, str] = None) -> str: if cache_version is None: cache_version = self._cache_version return f"{self._func.__name__}_v{cache_version}" + "_{}_" + f"{arg_hash}.zarr"
def __call__(self, *args, cache_dir: Optional[str] = None) -> Any: """Call the decorated function.""" should_cache: bool = satpy.config.get(self._cache_config_key, False) if not should_cache: return self._func(*args) try: return self._cache_and_read(args, cache_dir) except TypeError as err: warnings.warn("Cannot cache function because of unhashable argument: " + str(err), stacklevel=2) return self._func(*args)
[docs] def _cache_and_read(self, args, cache_dir): sanitized_args = self._sanitize_args_func(*args) if self._sanitize_args_func is not None else args zarr_file_pattern = self._get_zarr_file_pattern(sanitized_args, cache_dir) zarr_paths = glob(zarr_file_pattern.format("*")) if not zarr_paths: # use sanitized arguments self._warn_if_irregular_input_chunks(args, sanitized_args) res_to_cache = self._func(*(sanitized_args)) self._cache_results(res_to_cache, zarr_file_pattern) # if we did any caching, let's load from the zarr files, so that future calls have the same name # re-calculate the cached paths zarr_paths = sorted(glob(zarr_file_pattern.format("*"))) if not zarr_paths: raise RuntimeError("Data was cached to disk but no files were found") new_chunks = _get_output_chunks_from_func_arguments(args) res = tuple(da.from_zarr(zarr_path, chunks=new_chunks) for zarr_path in zarr_paths) return res
[docs] def _get_zarr_file_pattern(self, sanitized_args, cache_dir): arg_hash = _hash_args(*sanitized_args, unhashable_types=self._uncacheable_arg_types) zarr_filename = self._zarr_pattern(arg_hash) cache_dir = self._get_cache_dir_from_config(cache_dir) return os.path.join(cache_dir, zarr_filename)
[docs] @staticmethod def _get_cache_dir_from_config(cache_dir: Optional[str]) -> str: cache_dir = cache_dir or satpy.config.get("cache_dir") if cache_dir is None: raise RuntimeError("Can't use zarr caching. No 'cache_dir' configured.") return cache_dir
[docs] @staticmethod def _warn_if_irregular_input_chunks(args, modified_args): arg_chunks = _get_output_chunks_from_func_arguments(args) new_chunks = _get_output_chunks_from_func_arguments(modified_args) if _chunks_are_irregular(arg_chunks): warnings.warn( "Calling cached function with irregular dask chunks. The data " "has been rechunked for caching, but this is not optimal for " "future calculations. " f"Original chunks: {arg_chunks}; New chunks: {new_chunks}", PerformanceWarning, stacklevel=3 )
[docs] def _cache_results(self, res, zarr_file_pattern): os.makedirs(os.path.dirname(zarr_file_pattern), exist_ok=True) new_res = [] for idx, sub_res in enumerate(res): if not isinstance(sub_res, da.Array): raise ValueError("Zarr caching currently only supports dask " f"arrays. Got {type(sub_res)}") zarr_path = zarr_file_pattern.format(idx) # See with dask.config.set({"": False}): new_sub_res = sub_res.to_zarr(zarr_path, compute=False) new_res.append(new_sub_res) # actually compute the storage to zarr da.compute(new_res)
[docs] def _get_output_chunks_from_func_arguments(args): """Determine what the desired output chunks are. It is assumed a tuple of tuples of integers is defining chunk sizes. If a tuple like this is not found then arguments are checked for array-like objects with a ``.chunks`` attribute. """ chunked_args = [arg for arg in args if hasattr(arg, "chunks")] tuple_args = [arg for arg in args if _is_chunk_tuple(arg)] if not tuple_args and not chunked_args: raise RuntimeError("Cannot determine desired output chunksize for cached function.") new_chunks = tuple_args[-1] if tuple_args else chunked_args[0].chunks return new_chunks
[docs] def cache_to_zarr_if( cache_config_key: str, uncacheable_arg_types=DEFAULT_UNCACHE_TYPES, sanitize_args_func: Optional[Callable] = None, ) -> Callable: """Decorate a function and cache the results as a zarr array on disk. This only happens if the ``satpy.config`` boolean value for the provided key is ``True`` as well as some other conditions. See :class:`ZarrCacheHelper` for more information. Most importantly, this decorator does not limit how many items can be cached and does not clear out old entries. It is up to the user to manage the size of the cache. """ def _decorator(func: Callable) -> Callable: zarr_cacher = ZarrCacheHelper(func, cache_config_key, uncacheable_arg_types, sanitize_args_func) wrapper = update_wrapper(zarr_cacher, func) return wrapper return _decorator
[docs] def _hash_args(*args, unhashable_types=DEFAULT_UNCACHE_TYPES): import json hashable_args = [] for arg in args: if isinstance(arg, unhashable_types): raise TypeError(f"Unhashable type ({type(arg)}).") if isinstance(arg, HASHABLE_GEOMETRIES): arg = hash(arg) elif isinstance(arg, dt.datetime): arg = arg.isoformat(" ") hashable_args.append(arg) arg_hash = hashlib.sha1() # nosec arg_hash.update(json.dumps(tuple(hashable_args)).encode("utf8")) return arg_hash.hexdigest()
[docs] def _sanitize_observer_look_args(*args): new_args = [] for arg in args: if isinstance(arg, dt.datetime): new_args.append(STATIC_EARTH_INERTIAL_DATETIME) elif isinstance(arg, (float, np.float64, np.float32)): # Round floating point numbers to nearest tenth. Numpy types don't # serialize into JSON which is needed for hashing, thus the casting # to float here: new_args.append(float(round(arg, 1))) elif _is_chunk_tuple(arg) and _chunks_are_irregular(arg): new_chunks = _regular_chunks_from_irregular_chunks(arg) new_args.append(new_chunks) else: new_args.append(arg) return new_args
[docs] def _sanitize_args_with_chunks(*args): new_args = [] for arg in args: if _is_chunk_tuple(arg) and _chunks_are_irregular(arg): new_chunks = _regular_chunks_from_irregular_chunks(arg) new_args.append(new_chunks) else: new_args.append(arg) return new_args
[docs] def _is_chunk_tuple(some_obj: Any) -> bool: if not isinstance(some_obj, tuple): return False if not all(isinstance(sub_obj, tuple) for sub_obj in some_obj): return False sub_elements = [sub_obj_elem for sub_obj in some_obj for sub_obj_elem in sub_obj] return all(isinstance(sub_obj_elem, int) for sub_obj_elem in sub_elements)
[docs] def _regular_chunks_from_irregular_chunks( old_chunks: tuple[tuple[int, ...], ...] ) -> tuple[tuple[int, ...], ...]: shape = tuple(sum(dim_chunks) for dim_chunks in old_chunks) new_dim_chunks = tuple(max(dim_chunks) for dim_chunks in old_chunks) return da.core.normalize_chunks(new_dim_chunks, shape=shape)
[docs] def _chunks_are_irregular(chunks_tuple: tuple) -> bool: """Determine if an array is irregularly chunked. Zarr does not support saving data in irregular chunks. Regular chunking is when all chunks are the same size (except for the last one). """ if any(len(set(chunks[:-1])) > 1 for chunks in chunks_tuple): return True return any(chunks[-1] > chunks[0] for chunks in chunks_tuple)
[docs] def _geo_dask_to_data_array(arr: da.Array) -> xr.DataArray: return xr.DataArray(arr, dims=("y", "x"))
[docs] def compute_relative_azimuth(sat_azi: xr.DataArray, sun_azi: xr.DataArray) -> xr.DataArray: """Compute the relative azimuth angle. Args: sat_azi: DataArray for the satellite azimuth angles, typically in 0-360 degree range. sun_azi: DataArray for the solar azimuth angles, should be in same range as sat_azi. Returns: A DataArray containing the relative azimuth angle in the 0-180 degree range. NOTE: Relative azimuth is defined such that: Relative azimuth is 0 when sun and satellite are aligned on one side of a pixel (back scatter). Relative azimuth is 180 when sun and satellite are directly opposite each other (forward scatter). """ ssadiff = np.absolute(sun_azi - sat_azi) ssadiff = np.minimum(ssadiff, 360 - ssadiff) return ssadiff
[docs] def get_angles(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> tuple[xr.DataArray, xr.DataArray, xr.DataArray, xr.DataArray]: """Get sun and satellite azimuth and zenith angles. Note that this function can benefit from the ``satpy.config`` parameters :ref:`cache_lonlats <config_cache_lonlats_setting>` and :ref:`cache_sensor_angles <config_cache_sensor_angles_setting>` being set to ``True``. Args: data_arr: DataArray to get angles for. Information extracted from this object are ``.attrs["area"]``,``.attrs["start_time"]``, and ``.attrs["orbital_parameters"]``. See :func:`satpy.utils.get_satpos` and :ref:`dataset_metadata` for more information. Additionally, the dask array chunk size is used when generating new arrays. The actual data of the object is not used. Returns: Four DataArrays representing sensor azimuth angle, sensor zenith angle, solar azimuth angle, and solar zenith angle. All values are in degrees. Sensor angles are provided in the [0, 360] degree range. Solar angles are provided in the [-180, 180] degree range. """ sata, satz = _get_sensor_angles(data_arr) suna, sunz = _get_sun_angles(data_arr) return sata, satz, suna, sunz
[docs] def get_satellite_zenith_angle(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> xr.DataArray: """Generate satellite zenith angle for the provided data. Note that this function can benefit from the ``satpy.config`` parameters :ref:`cache_lonlats <config_cache_lonlats_setting>` and :ref:`cache_sensor_angles <config_cache_sensor_angles_setting>` being set to ``True``. Values are in degrees. """ satz = _get_sensor_angles(data_arr)[1] return satz
[docs] def get_cos_sza(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> xr.DataArray: """Generate the cosine of the solar zenith angle for the provided data. Returns: DataArray with the same shape as ``data_arr``. """ chunks = _geo_chunks_from_data_arr(data_arr) lons, lats = _get_valid_lonlats(data_arr.attrs["area"], chunks) if lons.dtype != data_arr.dtype and np.issubdtype(data_arr.dtype, np.floating): lons = lons.astype(data_arr.dtype) lats = lats.astype(data_arr.dtype) cos_sza = _get_cos_sza(data_arr.attrs["start_time"], lons, lats) return _geo_dask_to_data_array(cos_sza)
@cache_to_zarr_if("cache_lonlats", sanitize_args_func=_sanitize_args_with_chunks) def _get_valid_lonlats(area: PRGeometry, chunks: Union[int, str, tuple] = "auto") -> tuple[da.Array, da.Array]: with ignore_invalid_float_warnings(): # NOTE: This defaults to 64-bit floats due to needed precision for X/Y coordinates lons, lats = area.get_lonlats(chunks=chunks) lons = da.where(lons >= 1e30, np.nan, lons) lats = da.where(lats >= 1e30, np.nan, lats) return lons, lats
[docs] def _get_sun_angles(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> tuple[xr.DataArray, xr.DataArray]: chunks = _geo_chunks_from_data_arr(data_arr) lons, lats = _get_valid_lonlats(data_arr.attrs["area"], chunks) suna = da.map_blocks(_get_sun_azimuth_ndarray, lons, lats, data_arr.attrs["start_time"], dtype=lons.dtype, meta=np.array((), dtype=lons.dtype), chunks=lons.chunks) cos_sza = _get_cos_sza(data_arr.attrs["start_time"], lons, lats) sunz = np.rad2deg(np.arccos(cos_sza)) suna = _geo_dask_to_data_array(suna) sunz = _geo_dask_to_data_array(sunz) return suna, sunz
[docs] def _get_cos_sza(utc_time, lons, lats): cos_sza = da.map_blocks(_cos_zen_ndarray, lons, lats, utc_time, meta=np.array((), dtype=lons.dtype), dtype=lons.dtype, chunks=lons.chunks) return cos_sza
[docs] def _cos_zen_ndarray(lons, lats, utc_time): with ignore_invalid_float_warnings(): return pyob_cos_zen(utc_time, lons, lats)
[docs] def _get_sun_azimuth_ndarray(lons: np.ndarray, lats: np.ndarray, start_time: dt.datetime) -> np.ndarray: with ignore_invalid_float_warnings(): suna = get_alt_az(start_time, lons, lats)[1] suna = np.rad2deg(suna) # The get_alt_az function returns values in the range -180 to 180 degrees. # Satpy expects values in the 0 - 360 range, which is what is returned for the # satellite azimuth angles. # Here this is corrected so both sun and sat azimuths are in the same range. suna = suna % 360. return suna
[docs] def _get_sensor_angles(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> tuple[xr.DataArray, xr.DataArray]: preference = satpy.config.get("sensor_angles_position_preference", "actual") sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt = get_satpos(data_arr, preference=preference) area_def = data_arr.attrs["area"] chunks = _geo_chunks_from_data_arr(data_arr) sata, satz = _get_sensor_angles_from_sat_pos(sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt, data_arr.attrs["start_time"], area_def, chunks) sata = _geo_dask_to_data_array(sata) satz = _geo_dask_to_data_array(satz) return sata, satz
[docs] def _geo_chunks_from_data_arr(data_arr: xr.DataArray) -> tuple: x_dim_index = _dim_index_with_default(data_arr.dims, "x", -1) y_dim_index = _dim_index_with_default(data_arr.dims, "y", -2) chunks = (data_arr.chunks[y_dim_index], data_arr.chunks[x_dim_index]) return chunks
[docs] def _dim_index_with_default(dims: tuple, dim_name: str, default: int) -> int: try: return dims.index(dim_name) except ValueError: return default
@cache_to_zarr_if("cache_sensor_angles", sanitize_args_func=_sanitize_observer_look_args) def _get_sensor_angles_from_sat_pos(sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt, start_time, area_def, chunks): lons, lats = _get_valid_lonlats(area_def, chunks) res = da.map_blocks(_get_sensor_angles_ndarray, lons, lats, start_time, sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt, dtype=lons.dtype, meta=np.array((), dtype=lons.dtype), new_axis=[0], chunks=(2,) + lons.chunks) return res[0], res[1]
[docs] def _get_sensor_angles_ndarray(lons, lats, start_time, sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt) -> np.ndarray: with ignore_invalid_float_warnings(): sata, satel = get_observer_look( sat_lon, sat_lat, sat_alt / 1000.0, # km start_time, lons, lats, 0) satz = 90 - satel return np.stack([sata, satz])
[docs] def sunzen_corr_cos(data: da.Array, cos_zen: da.Array, limit: float = 88., max_sza: Optional[float] = 95.) -> da.Array: """Perform Sun zenith angle correction. The correction is based on the provided cosine of the zenith angle (``cos_zen``). The correction is limited to ``limit`` degrees (default: 88.0 degrees). For larger zenith angles, the correction is the same as at the ``limit`` if ``max_sza`` is `None`. The default behavior is to gradually reduce the correction past ``limit`` degrees up to ``max_sza`` where the correction becomes 0. Both ``data`` and ``cos_zen`` should be 2D arrays of the same shape. """ return da.map_blocks(_sunzen_corr_cos_ndarray, data, cos_zen, limit, max_sza, meta=np.array((), dtype=data.dtype), chunks=data.chunks)
[docs] def _sunzen_corr_cos_ndarray(data: np.ndarray, cos_zen: np.ndarray, limit: float, max_sza: Optional[float]) -> np.ndarray: # Convert the zenith angle limit to cosine of zenith angle limit_rad = np.deg2rad(limit) limit_cos = np.cos(limit_rad) max_sza_rad = np.deg2rad(max_sza) if max_sza is not None else max_sza # Cosine correction corr = (1. / cos_zen).astype(data.dtype, copy=False) if max_sza is not None: # gradually fall off for larger zenith angle grad_factor = (np.arccos(cos_zen) - limit_rad) / (max_sza_rad - limit_rad) # invert the factor so maximum correction is done at `limit` and falls off later with np.errstate(invalid="ignore"): # we expect space pixels to be invalid grad_factor = 1. - np.log(grad_factor + 1) / np.log(2) # make sure we don't make anything negative grad_factor = grad_factor.clip(0.) else: # Use constant value (the limit) for larger zenith angles grad_factor = 1. corr = np.where( cos_zen > limit_cos, corr, (grad_factor / limit_cos).astype(data.dtype, copy=False) ) # Force "night" pixels to 0 (where SZA is invalid) corr[np.isnan(cos_zen)] = 0 return data * corr
[docs] def sunzen_reduction(data: da.Array, sunz: da.Array, limit: float = 55., max_sza: float = 90., strength: float = 1.5) -> da.Array: """Reduced strength of signal at high sun zenith angles.""" return da.map_blocks(_sunzen_reduction_ndarray, data, sunz, limit, max_sza, strength, meta=np.array((), dtype=data.dtype), chunks=data.chunks)
[docs] def _sunzen_reduction_ndarray(data: np.ndarray, sunz: np.ndarray, limit: float, max_sza: float, strength: float) -> np.ndarray: # compute reduction factor (0.0 - 1.0) between limit and maz_sza reduction_factor = (sunz - limit) / (max_sza - limit) reduction_factor = reduction_factor.clip(0., 1.) # invert the reduction factor such that minimum reduction is done at `limit` and gradually increases towards max_sza with np.errstate(invalid="ignore"): # we expect space pixels to be invalid reduction_factor = 1. - np.log(reduction_factor + 1) / np.log(2) # apply non-linearity to the reduction factor for a non-linear reduction of the signal. This can be used for a # slower or faster transision to higher/lower fractions at the ndvi extremes. If strength equals 1.0, this # operation has no effect on the reduction_factor. reduction_factor = reduction_factor ** strength / ( reduction_factor ** strength + (1 - reduction_factor) ** strength) # compute final correction term, with no reduction for angles < limit corr = np.where(sunz < limit, 1.0, reduction_factor) # force "night" pixels to 0 (where SZA is invalid) corr[np.isnan(sunz)] = 0 # reduce data signal with correction term res = data * corr return res