Composites are defined as arrays of data that are created by processing and/or combining one or multiple data arrays (prerequisites) together.
Composites are generated in satpy using Compositor classes. The attributes of the resulting composites are usually a combination of the prerequisites’ attributes and the key/values of the DataID used to identify it.
There are several built-in compositors available in SatPy.
All of them use the
GenericCompositor base class
which handles various image modes (L, LA, RGB, and
RGBA at the moment) and updates attributes.
The below sections summarize the composites that come with SatPy and
show basic examples of creating and using them with an existing
Scene object. It is recommended that any composites
that are used repeatedly be configured in YAML configuration files.
General-use compositor code dealing with visible or infrared satellite
data can be put in a configuration file called
that are specific to an instrument can be placed in YAML config files named
viirs.yaml). See the
for more examples.
GenericCompositor class can be used to create basic single
channel and RGB composites. For example, building an overview composite
can be done manually within Python code with:
>>> from satpy.composites import GenericCompositor >>> compositor = GenericCompositor("overview") >>> composite = compositor([local_scene[0.6], ... local_scene[0.8], ... local_scene[10.8]])
One important thing to notice is that there is an internal difference between a composite and an image. A composite is defined as a special dataset which may have several bands (like R, G and B bands). However, the data isn’t stretched, or clipped or gamma filtered until an image is generated. To get an image out of the above composite:
>>> from satpy.writers import to_image >>> img = to_image(composite) >>> img.invert([False, False, True]) >>> img.stretch("linear") >>> img.gamma(1.7) >>> img.show()
This part is called enhancement, and is covered in more detail in Enhancements.
DifferenceCompositor calculates a difference of two datasets:
>>> from satpy.composites import DifferenceCompositor >>> compositor = DifferenceCompositor("diffcomp") >>> composite = compositor([local_scene[10.8], local_scene[12.0]])
FillingCompositor:: fills the missing values in three datasets
with the values of another dataset::
>>> from satpy.composites import FillingCompositor >>> compositor = FillingCompositor("fillcomp") >>> filler = local_scene[0.6] >>> data_with_holes_1 = local_scene['ch_a'] >>> data_with_holes_2 = local_scene['ch_b'] >>> data_with_holes_3 = local_scene['ch_c'] >>> composite = compositor([filler, data_with_holes_1, data_with_holes_2, ... data_with_holes_3])
PaletteCompositor creates a color version of a single channel
categorical dataset using a colormap:
>>> from satpy.composites import PaletteCompositor >>> compositor = PaletteCompositor("palcomp") >>> composite = compositor([local_scene['cma'], local_scene['cma_pal']])
The palette should have a single entry for all the (possible) values in the dataset mapping the value to an RGB triplet. Typically the palette comes with the categorical (e.g. cloud mask) product that is being visualized.
DayNightCompositor merges two different composites. The
first composite will be placed on the day-side of the scene, and the
second one on the night side. The transition from day to night is
done by calculating solar zenith angle (SZA) weighed average of the
two composites. The SZA can optionally be given as third dataset, and
if not given, the angles will be calculated. Width of the blending
zone can be defined when initializing the compositor (default values
shown in the example below).
>>> from satpy.composites import DayNightCompositor >>> compositor = DayNightCompositor("dnc", lim_low=85., lim_high=88.) >>> composite = compositor([local_scene['true_color'], ... local_scene['night_fog']])
RealisticColors compositor is a special compositor that is
used to create realistic near-true-color composite from MSG/SEVIRI
>>> from satpy.composites import RealisticColors >>> compositor = RealisticColors("realcols", lim_low=85., lim_high=95.) >>> composite = compositor([local_scene['VIS006'], ... local_scene['VIS008'], ... local_scene['HRV']])
CloudCompositor can be used to threshold the data so that
“only” clouds are visible. These composites can be used as an overlay
on top of e.g. static terrain images to show a rough idea where there
are clouds. The data are thresholded using three variables:
- `transition_min`: values below or equal to this are clouds -> opaque white - `transition_max`: values above this are cloud free -> transparent - `transition_gamma`: gamma correction applied to clarify the clouds
Usage (with default values):
>>> from satpy.composites import CloudCompositor >>> compositor = CloudCompositor("clouds", transition_min=258.15, ... transition_max=298.15, ... transition_gamma=3.0) >>> composite = compositor([local_scene[10.8]])
Support for using this compositor for VIS data, where the values for high/thick clouds tend to be in reverse order to brightness temperatures, is to be added.
SelfSharpenedRGB sharpens the RGB with ratio of a band with a
strided version of itself.
LuminanceSharpeningCompositor replaces the luminance from an
RGB composite with luminance created from reflectance data. If the
resolutions of the reflectance data _and_ of the target area
definition are higher than the base RGB, more details can be
retrieved. This compositor can be useful also with matching
resolutions, e.g. to highlight shadowing at cloudtops in colorized
>>> from satpy.composites import LuminanceSharpeningCompositor >>> compositor = LuminanceSharpeningCompositor("vis_sharpened_ir") >>> vis_data = local_scene['HRV'] >>> colorized_ir_clouds = local_scene['colorized_ir_clouds'] >>> composite = compositor([vis_data, colorized_ir_clouds])
SandwichCompositor uses reflectance data to bring out more
details out of infrared or low-resolution composites.
SandwichCompositor multiplies the RGB channels with (scaled)
>>> from satpy.composites import SandwichCompositor >>> compositor = SandwichCompositor("ir_sandwich") >>> vis_data = local_scene['HRV'] >>> colorized_ir_clouds = local_scene['colorized_ir_clouds'] >>> composite = compositor([vis_data, colorized_ir_clouds])
StaticImageCompositorcan be used to read an image from disk and used just like satellite data, including resampling and using as a part of other composites.>>> from satpy.composites import StaticImageCompositor >>> compositor = StaticImageCompositor("static_image", filename="image.tif") >>> composite = compositor()
BackgroundCompositorcan be used to stack two composites together. If the composites don’t have alpha channels, the background is used where foreground has no data. If foreground has alpha channel, the alpha values are used to weight when blending the two composites.>>> from satpy import Scene >>> from satpy.composites import BackgroundCompositor >>> compositor = BackgroundCompositor() >>> clouds = local_scene['ir_cloud_day'] >>> background = local_scene['overview'] >>> composite = compositor([clouds, background])
Creating composite configuration files¶
To save the custom composite, the following procedure can be used:
Create a custom directory for your custom configs.
Set the environment variable
PPP_CONFIG_DIRto this path.
Write config files with your changes only (see examples below), pointing to the (custom) module containing your composites. Generic compositors can be placed in
$PPP_CONFIG_DIR/composites/visir.yamland instrument- specific ones in
$PPP_CONFIG_DIR/composites/<sensor>.yaml. Don’t forget to add changes to the
If custom compositing code was used then it must be importable by python. If the code is not installed in your python environment then another option it to add it to your
With that, you should be able to load your new composite directly. Example configuration files can be found in the satpy repository as well as a few simple examples below.
Simple RGB composite¶
This is the overview composite shown in the first code example above
sensor_name: visir composites: overview: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.GenericCompositor prerequisites: - 0.6 - 0.8 - 10.8 standard_name: overview
For an instrument specific version (here MSG/SEVIRI), we should use the channel _names_ instead of wavelengths. Note also that the sensor_name is now combination of visir and seviri, which means that it extends the generic visir composites:
sensor_name: visir/seviri composites: overview: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.GenericCompositor prerequisites: - VIS006 - VIS008 - IR_108 standard_name: overview
In the following examples only the composite receipes are shown, and the header information (sensor_name, composites) and intendation needs to be added.
In many cases the basic datasets need to be adjusted, e.g. for Solar zenith angle normalization. These modifiers can be applied in the following way:
overview: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.GenericCompositor prerequisites: - name: VIS006 modifiers: [sunz_corrected] - name: VIS008 modifiers: [sunz_corrected] - IR_108 standard_name: overview
Here we see two changes:
channels with modifiers need to have either name or wavelength added in front of the channel name or wavelength, respectively
a list of modifiers attached to the dictionary defining the channel
The modifier above is a built-in that normalizes the Solar zenith angle to Sun being directly at the zenith.
Using other composites¶
Often it is handy to use other composites as a part of the composite. In this example we have one composite that relies on solar channels on the day side, and another for the night side:
natural_with_night_fog: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.DayNightCompositor prerequisites: - natural_color - night_fog standard_name: natural_with_night_fog
This compositor has two additional keyword arguments that can be defined (shown with the default values, thus identical result as above):
natural_with_night_fog: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.DayNightCompositor prerequisites: - natural_color - night_fog lim_low: 85.0 lim_high: 95.0 standard_name: natural_with_night_fog
Defining other composites in-line¶
It is also possible to define sub-composites in-line. This example is the built-in airmass composite:
airmass: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.GenericCompositor prerequisites: - compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.DifferenceCompositor prerequisites: - wavelength: 6.2 - wavelength: 7.3 - compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.DifferenceCompositor prerequisites: - wavelength: 9.7 - wavelength: 10.8 - wavelength: 6.2 standard_name: airmass
Using a pre-made image as a background¶
Below is an example composite config using
BackgroundCompositor to show how
to create a composite with a blended day/night imagery as background
for clouds. As the images are in PNG format, and thus not
georeferenced, the name of the area definition for the background
images are given. When using GeoTIFF images the area parameter can
be left out.
The background blending uses the current time if there is no timestamps in the image filenames.
clouds_with_background: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.BackgroundCompositor standard_name: clouds_with_background prerequisites: - ir_cloud_day - compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.DayNightCompositor prerequisites: - static_day - static_night static_day: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.StaticImageCompositor standard_name: static_day filename: /path/to/day_image.png area: euro4 static_night: compositor: !!python/name:satpy.composites.StaticImageCompositor standard_name: static_night filename: /path/to/night_image.png area: euro4
To ensure that the images aren’t auto-stretched and possibly altered, the following should be added to enhancement config (assuming 8-bit image) for both of the static images:
static_day: standard_name: static_day operations: - name: stretch method: !!python/name:satpy.enhancements.stretch kwargs: stretch: crude min_stretch: [0, 0, 0] max_stretch: [255, 255, 255]
Enhancing the images¶
After the composite is defined and created, it needs to be converted
to an image. To do this, it is necessary to describe how the data
values are mapped to values stored in the image format. This
procedure is called
stretching, and in SatPy it is implemented by
The first step is to convert the composite to an
>>> from satpy.writers import to_image >>> img = to_image(composite)
Now it is possible to apply enhancements available in the class:
>>> img.invert([False, False, True]) >>> img.stretch("linear") >>> img.gamma(1.7)
And finally either show or save the image:
>>> img.show() >>> img.save('image.tif')
As pointed out in the composite section, it is better to define
frequently used enhancements in configuration files under
$PPP_CONFIG_DIR/enhancements/. The enhancements can either be in
generic.yaml or instrument-specific file (e.g.,
The above enhancement can be written (with the headers necessary for the file) as:
enhancements: overview: standard_name: overview operations: - name: inverse method: !!python/name:satpy.enhancements.invert args: [False, False, True] - name: stretch method: !!python/name:satpy.enhancements.stretch kwargs: stretch: linear - name: gamma method: !!python/name:satpy.enhancements.gamma kwargs: gamma: [1.7, 1.7, 1.7]
More examples can be found in SatPy source code directory
See the Enhancements documentation for more information on available built-in enhancements.